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Visitor Vignettes: Héloïse Russell-Fergusson

Héloïse Russell-Fergusson (1896-1970) with a Clàrsach (Gaelic Harp), painted by Cathleen Mann (1896-1959), © The Mitchell Library, Glasgow

Hello and welcome to the first blog post in a new series: Visitor Vignettes! These bite-sized blog posts will explore past visitors to Innerpeffray who were recorded in the library’s collection of visitors’ books.


Visitors’ Books Volumes 1-12, covering 1859-1982

The visitors’ books contain signatures and details of visitors to the library from 1859 to the present day – with each modern visitor adding to the living archive. By digitising and investigating the information within the visitors’ books, it is possible to discover more about what kind of people were visiting the Library of Innerpeffray – and this is one of the research goals of my PhD.


Visitors’ Book Volume 2, f.10r

Today’s spotlighted visitor is Héloïse Russell-Fergusson (1896-1970), who visited the Library of Innerpeffray on Friday 30th July 1897. Born in Glasgow the previous year, it appears that Russell-Fergusson was brought to Innerpeffray as a babe in arms, accompanied by some of her mothers’ relatives, including Agnes and Jessie Russell, from Rothesay on the Isle of Bute, and William Russell, from Glasgow.[1]


Visitors’ Book Volume 2, f.10r

Although Héloïse’s mother, Hélène Russell-Fergusson (1873-1952) is not recorded as being present with her daughter on 30th July, her signature does appear in the Innerpeffray visitors’ books just over a week later, on Monday 9th August 1897, where she indicates that she lives in the Scotstounhill area of Glasgow. Perhaps Hélène was unable to join her family on 30th July and simply had to plan her own visit after they all came home singing the praises of the library!


Visitors’ Book Volume 2, f.11r

Héloïse Russell-Fergusson was an influential musician, teacher, and composer, who travelled the world playing the clarsach and piano. Growing up between Glasgow and Argyll, as a young adult she studied piano, song and harmony at the Royal Academy of Music in London and subsequently taught piano at an American girls’ school in Washington D.C. In fact, it was in America that Héloïse first discovered the clarsach, an instrument which shaped her future life and career.


September 1923 Outward Passenger List for the S.S. Paris, from Plymouth to New York

June 1926 Incoming Passenger List for the T.S.S. Caledonia, from New York to Glasgow

While the outward passenger list for her 1923 journey to New York lists her occupation as “Pianist”, and the incoming passenger list for her return to Glasgow in June 1926 lists her occupation as “Teacher” (as we know, she worked as a piano teacher during this time), the outward passenger list for a December 1935 trip to New Zealand lists her occupation as “Musician”. Héloïse continued to travel as a performing musician throughout the 1930s, giving recitals across the Americas, Canada, Japan, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa.


December 1935 Outward Passenger List for the R.M.S. Remuera, from London to New Zealand

Héloïse composed and published numerous pieces of music, most of which are part of a collection of almost 2000 items she donated to Glasgow’s Mitchell Library in the 1960s. She was also interested in ethnography, and her nineteen-volume collection of photographs and cuttings about harps and harp-like instruments, titled the Russell-Fergusson Collection of Harps, is also held at the Mitchell Library.


While researching Héloïse for this blog, I was delighted to find that some of her musical recordings are available to listen to online! The following song was recorded at the Kintore Rooms, 74 Queen Street, Edinburgh on Tuesday 26th September 1933.


Héloïse Russell-Fergusson, Scottish harpist and singer, 1933.

For more information about both Héloïse and her archive in the Mitchell Library, Hélène Witcher (Héloïse’s niece) has published a book about her aunt: Madame Scotia, Madam Scrap: The Story of Héloïse Russell-Fergusson, 1896-1970.

The following website, Rare Tunes, is also full of information about Héloïse and contains further recordings of her music: https://raretunes.org/heloise-russell-fergusson/


Isla Macfarlane, PhD Student

[1] The 1891 census shows two sisters, Agnes Russell (born around 1835) and Jessie Russell (born around 1833), living in Rothesay, who may be Héloïse’s Great-Aunts, but I have not been able to confirm this.

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Why FOIL?

A Talk by Jean Ann Scott Miller – blog by Sophie Wood

On 13th April 2022, the Library of Innerpeffray hosted a talk in its schoolroom about the foundation of our fundraising and support society: Friends of Innerpeffray Library (FOIL). The talk was given by one of FOIL’s founding members, Jean Ann Scott Miller, who continues to volunteer and lend her support to the library frequently.

Pamphlet, approximate date 2002: Seven Good Reasons to join FOIL including joining costs and membership form to post to the LIbrary.

Jean Ann started the talk with a contextual outline of the library – beginning with Friends of old.

David Drummond, 3rd Lord Madertie

Anyone familiar with the library knows the story of our founder, David Drummond, Lord Madertie. “The first and greatest” friend of the library, his incredible generosity in opening his personal library to the public in 1680 led to a centuries long story of education and enterprise. From a small room in the chapel to what it is today, we have Lord Madertie to thank.

William Drummond of Hawthornden.

Jean Ann lamented the fact that we do not have any portraits of Lord Madertie, only examples of his signature in his books, as seen above. However, we do have a number of portraits of his “slightly older cousin, the poet and historian, William Drummond of Hawthornden from which I think we can deduce the general style and manner of Madertie’s appearance.”

William Drummond

In a similar vein, Jean Ann introduced the audience to William Drummond, the younger brother of Lord Madertie. While he was sadly uninvolved with the library’s foundation, due to his passing away, his portrait is proudly displayed in the library, and he provides a potential glimpse into the features of our founding father.

Robert Hay Drummond

An exceptionally important Friend of the library, “He was born Robert Hay, a grandson of the 7th Earl of Kinnoull, and added Drummond to his patronym when he inherited the Innerpeffray estate from his great-grandfather, William Drummond, 1st Viscount Strathallan. His distinguished career culminated in his appointment as Archbishop of York in 1761, and he is hugely important for us because it was he who financed the building of the Library, begun in the 1740s and completed in 1762. He also donated and bequeathed a number of his own books to the Library, and even more important, made provision for the purchase of new books, the foundation of our outstanding collection of 18th century titles.

Arthur Hay Drummond

Next, Jean Ann introduced the audience to Arthur Hay Drummond, a man “generally credited with setting the Library’s affairs in order by updating the Mortification Trust… in 1853 at a time when the Library was in considerable difficulty.” While the majority of the work to establish the administrative change to the Library was conducted by Arthur’s older brother, yet another Robert Hay Drummond.

Portrait of Arthur Hay Drummond, 1879

it is Arthur who is credited. This comes as a result of Robert’s untimely death at the age of 24, after succumbing to mortal injuries on his journey home from the Crimean War.

Having established the long history of the people whose investment and friendship towards the Library of Innerpeffray sustained the institution for centuries, Jean Ann brought us into much more recent times, with Friends from the 20th and 21st centuries.

Janet Saint Germain

Another familiar name for those already versed in the Library’s history, Janet Saint Germain is one of our most important recent patrons. “Janet’s amazing gift of her collection of Scottish first editions, including the earliest books in the Library – a 1476 edition of the works of John Duns Scotus, the 13th century Scots theologian and philosopher – and extending to the 20th century renaissance of Scottish literature has given new life and lustre to the Library.” Janet Saint Germain’s bequeathment of these books in 2013 introduced a wealth of resources to the Library and allowed for the renovation of the downstairs of the building – leading to a beautiful set of shelves being added to house the collection. Janet sadly passed away in 2018, but her legacy and unfathomable generosity lives on in the Library.

Bobby Wallace

Mr Wallace, a long-standing Friend of Innerpeffray Library played a large part in finding and securing funding for the Library throughout his time with us, and it was his “single-minded determination [which] secured the redevelopment of the lower part of the building to house [Janet Saint Germain’s] collection.”

It remained clear throughout the talk that there have always been people who have been devoted to the Library of Innerpeffray and whose time and efforts have kept the Library going since 1680.

L_R Mrs Christine Wallace, Mrs Janet St Germain, Dr Alistair Kennedy (Innerpeffray Governor) and Robert ‘Bobby’ Wallace (Chair of Governors)

Jean Ann continued:

“We’ve almost arrived at FOIL, but again we must first understand a little about the Library’s instrument of governance, the Mortification Trust. Lord Madertie very plainly wanted the Library to continue after his death. He left it a considerable sum – 5000 Scots merks – in his Will, and also endowed land in its favour – possibly the present graveyard… but Lara [Haggerty] suggests… that it may have been a parcel of land from the estate which could have provided regular income. In any case, shortly after Madertie’s death in 1692, his surviving family established the Mortification Trust to ensure the Library’s continuation, and in the interests of that continuity, it was determined that there should be an enduring connection between the Library, the Haldanes of Gleneagles, and the holder of the Innerpeffray estate.” Over time this connection has adapted, and remained intact until 2019. At present, “the Mortification continues to fulfil its original purpose – to retain the collection in its historic setting to make it generally available to the public.”

With the library ceasing to lend in 1968, due to evidently fluctuating use of the lending system between the 18th and early 20th centuries, it was unclear what would come next. The Library became a Book Museum, however “Matters came to a crisis point in the early 1980s.”

In 1983 there were discussions of transferring much of the collection to the National Library in Edinburgh, and potentially to hand the Library building over to the Department of the Environment – the latter suggestion being rebuffed by the Minister, Lord James Douglas Hamilton and eventually fruitless.

1988 brought a new lease of life to the Library with the appointment of Librarian Ted Powell, and the appointment of Frank Thomson as a Governor. Following swiftly, in 1992 Frank Thomson’s wife Lucie – an Independent on the Perth and Kinross District Council – became a representative on the Library’s Board of Trustees. The team of Ted and Lucie was joined by Logan Mitchell, and together the three became the first official Friends of Innerpeffray Library.

This move was not initially supported by the Governors, something that is all the more confusing when taking into account a letter included in the Mortification file from 25th February 1953, suggesting the foundation of a “Friends of Innerpeffray Library”.

Recounting her memory of the early days of FOIL, Jean Ann stated “Our first members were mostly recruited by Lucie calling on her many friends with an application form at the ready and the genial instruction ‘You do want to be a Friend of Innerpeffray Library, don’t you.’”

“A programme of monthly talks was quickly established. To begin with, most of the speakers came from the membership, and the talks tended to have a strong local or Perthshire interest. The pool of speakers gradually widened, as did their subject matter. We learned about cheese, and chocolate, and bees. About the men who built the Hydro dams and tunnels. About the Scots translation of Shakespeare’s Scottish play. About the Enlightenment – two very different views some years apart, one from Magnus Linklater… and the other from David Purdie… Other prominente joined our speaker’s list:… Willie Prosser, then Lord President of the Court of Session. He was followed, in no particular order by Sir William Macpherson of Cluny…; Lord Elgin; the Duke of Montrose; Sue Black; James Robertson; Jim Naughtie; Sandy McCall Smith; and most recently, Donald Findlay and Val McDermid.” Here, “Sandy McCall Smith” may be more well-known to readers as Alexander McCall Smith.

“Tony Murray adapted a fascinating Jacobite correspondence from the Dollerie archive into a dramatic reading. We heard about the construction of the V&A in Dundee; about Dundee’s mediaeval importance as one of the Baltic ports; about the Gask Ridge excavations; the Stone of Destiny; Tacitus’ life of his father-in-law Agricola; and on one exceptionally lengthy evening the branch railway lines of Upper Strathearn.” Jean Ann proceeded to outline the FOIL talks’ history of hospitality – with wine and nibbles being a foundational pre-talk tradition continued to this day, often due to the generosity of FOIL members.

“A FOIL newsletter was also quickly established, initially edited – and largely written – by Logan Mitchell… Under Maureen Nicholson’s later editorship, it continued to give the members a lively view of our activities, with the occasional submitted article.”

Musical and dramatic events have also been a staple of FOIL activities throughout the years. “A group from Kirriemuir… gave us a recital of Lady Nairne’s Jacobite songs. Peter Davenport brought his jazz band. The Really Terrible Orchestra came from Edinburgh. Crieff Drama Group performed excerpts from Shakespeare. Jess Smith gave us an evening of songs and stories. We had recitals From Chansons and from the Roseneath Singers. And in 2000, the first Carols at Innerpeffray started a Crieff Christmas tradition, with the Innerpeffray Singers under their founder and conductor Joan Taylor.”

Carols in Innerpeffray Chapel

Jean Ann also detailed the various trips that FOIL undertook, including visits to Monzie Castle, Gleneagles, Arniston House, Balcarres, Newton Castle, Ardvorlich, and Drummond Castle to name a few.

Most importantly, the charity achieved its chief aim: raising money for the Library. In the six years between 2007 and 2013, FOIL gave £68,150 – through a mixture of direct donation and also money spent on projects for the Library. Improvements have been made to the Schoolhouse connected to the Library, which houses many events and is a modern manifestation of the school that was also built by David Drummond, Lord Madertie. Three state-of-the art exhibition cases now sit in the ground floor of the Library, costing £13,211 and partly funded “by a very generous bequest from Irene McKechnie – she and her husband Ken were founder members of FOIL…”

“Another even more generous bequest from Dr Vera Coutts has since funded the improvement and extension of the car park and the installation of the external lights between the car park and the Library.”

“The very first of our projects was actually carried out free of charge. My husband [Jack Scott Miller] provided a second-hand Zip water heater for the Library loo, and Ray Baird fitted it.”

Throughout the talk, it was evidently clear that the passion, dedication, kindness and generosity of the members of FOIL over the past thirty years has not only kept the Library in incredible condition, but has also allowed the Library to adapt to the leaps and bounds of modernisation, keeping the books protected with the latest technology and allowing Lord Madertie’s vision to remain by preserving these incredible resources to be handled by visitors and volunteers alike.

Jean Ann concluded with the following:

“And that, Friends, is the answer to the question ‘Why FOIL?’ I hope this canter through most of our first 29 years of life will encourage all FOIL members here tonight to renew their subscriptions on time, to support the Committee by attending talks, events, and outings, to bring visitors to the Library and to encourage membership, and that any non-members will pick up a membership form and join. It is not over-egging the pudding to say that without FOIL, the Library could well have been lost. FOIL still has a vital role.

There’s something to add – “Being a Friend of Innerpeffray Library” means something else. It means using the Library as Lord Madertie meant it to be used. It means going to the Library and learning about the books and from the books. There are several ways to start this process. You can step through the door, turn yourself three times in a clockwise circle, point at the nearest book, and see what hares is starts running.”

Throughout the talk, Jean Ann highlighted a number of incredible books that hide away in the vast shelves of the building; their secrets bound in brown and beige leather, while their weathered pages call out to be touched and turned, the black swirls of countless different fonts enticing visitors to dive into infinite realms of discovery. A bibliography has been compiled at the end of this blog for the interest of readers, should you seek a place to begin with your visit.

Special thanks go to Frank Thomson and Louise Powell for providing photographs. John Hughes provided the figures regarding funding. Lara Haggerty, Keeper of the Books; Naomi Harvey, Assistant Keeper of the Books; and volunteer Gillean Ford provided a number of supportive facts. Sophie Wood compiled the presentation and provided technical support on the night of the talk.

Most of all, thanks go out to the audience members who attended the talk, members of FOIL whose continued support sustains the Library of Innerpeffray, and to you, the reader, who even in reading through our history and engaging with our website provides another layer to our story and allows us to reach an even wider audience.

Having had the privilege of working alongside Jean Ann Scott Miller and all of the Library staff, I have learned so much about the foundation of the Library of Innerpeffray, and the Friends of Innerpeffray Library Charity. At the end of this talk, the question that stayed with me was not “Why FOIL?” The question now remains: “Why not?”

For more information on how to become a Friend of Innerpeffray Library, please visit: https://innerpeffraylibrary.co.uk/friends-of-innerpeffray-library/

Bibliography:

Seven Good Reasons to join FOIL, Pamphlet, 2002-03

Portrait of William Drummond of Hawthorndern, in his The history of Scotland, from the year 1423. until the year 1542…, 1655.

William Drummond, Portrait

Some helpes to stirre up to christian duties, Henry Whitfield, 1634

Good thoughts in bad times. Together with good thoughts in worse times, Thomas Fuller, 1657

A vindication of the authority, constitution, and laws of the church and state of Scotland, Gilbert Burnet, 1673

The vvorkes of the most high and mightie prince, Iames by the grace of God, King of Great Britaine, France and Ireland, defender of the faith, James I, King of England, 1616

The history of this iron age: : vvherein is set dovvn the true state of Europe as it was in the year 1500, Jean-Nicolas de Parival, 1656

Medulla Historiae Anglicanae…, William Howell, 1681

Narrenschiff, Sebastian Brant, 1570

All the vvorkes of Iohn Taylor the water-poet: Being sixty and three in number, Elizabeth Allde, 1630

The pleasant history of Lazarillo de Tormes a Spaniard…, Diego Hurtado de Mendoza, 1639

The noble art of venerie or hunting, George Gascoigne, 1611

Kriegskunst zu Fuß…, Johann Jacobi von Wallhausen, 1620

An institution of general history, or The history of the ecclesiastical affairs of the world…, William Howell, 1685

La cosmographie universelle de tout le monde…, Sebastian Munster, 1575

Les CL. Pseaumes de David, Bible, 1567

Speculum Mundi…, John Swan, 1635

Robert Hay Drummond, Portrait

South Exterior of the Library, Sophie Wood, 8th April 2022

Arthur Hay Drummond, Portrait

Christine Wallace, Janet Saint Germaine, Dr Alistair Kennedy, Robert Wallace, Photograph from Album

Questiones in quattuor libros Sententiarum, John Duns Scotus, 1476

A Man in My Position, Norman MacCaig, 1969

Innerpeffray Library register of borrowers, 1904

Mortification of Library of Innerpeffray, 1953

FOIL Facts, Newsletter, April 2000

New Artzney Buch, Christof Wirsung, 1617

Scotorum Historiae, Hector Boece, 1527

Scotorum Historiae, Translated by John Bellenden, 1540

The firste volume of the Chronicles of England, Scotlande, and Irelande, Raphael Holinshed, 1577

The lives and characters of the most eminent writers of the Scots nation…, George Mackenzie, 1708-22

The history of the affairs of church and state in Scotland…, Robert Keith, 1734

The history of Scotland : during the reigns of Queen Mary and of King James VI. till his accession to the crown of England, William Robertson, 1761

The history of the reign of the Emperor Charles V, William Robertson, 1769

A collection of voyages and travels, some now first printed from original manuscripts, Compiled by Awnsham Churchill and John Churchill, 1704

A collection of photographs provided by Jean Ann Scott Miller, Frank Thomson, Louise Powell and the Innerpeffray Library Archive

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J. Cuthbert Hadden: “Master of the Song”

“In short, in regard to music, our great writers have been just like other people—some have been passionately fond of music, some have liked it in a mild kind of way, and some have been absolutely indifferent to it.”[1]


Black and white photograph of James Cuthbert Hadden in a suit and bowtie.
Portrait of the author J. Cuthbert Hadden in one of the last
books he published before his death in May 1914.[2]

James Cuthbert Hadden (1859-1914) was a Scottish litterateur and “Master of the Song”[3] who balanced his twin loves of music and literature throughout his life, publishing a myriad of articles, biographies and books while working as an organist in Aberdeen, Crieff, and Edinburgh.[4] Hadden was born in Banchory-Ternan, near Aberdeen, on the 5th September 1859, and by the age of 14 was working with Aberdonian booksellers A. & R. Milne and singing in his local choir. In 1878, at the age of 18, Hadden moved to London to work at the Routledge publishing house, spending his workdays in the literary world and his evenings and weekends practising his skills with the piano and organ. Returning to Scotland due to illness after only three years in London, Hadden “thought no more of bookselling” and “determined to be a musician,” taking up work as an organist first in Aberdeen and then Crieff.[5] He stayed at Mannofield Parish Church for only a few months before moving south to work as organist and choirmaster under the Reverend Dr. Cunningham at St. Michael’s Parish Church, Crieff, where he remained for the next ten years.


Red Crieff Heritage Trail plaque for St Michael's Church Hall - 1786.
Crieff Heritage Trail Plaque, St. Michael’s Parish Church, Crieff[6]

While in Crieff, Hadden met and married his future wife, Elizabeth Couper Gordon (1863-1929), and led a busy life both musical and literary. Particularly interesting given my research on the Innerpeffray visitors’ books, Hadden was very concerned about the musical reputation of Crieff to its summer visitors and tourists. In 1890, the last year he spent in Crieff before moving to Edinburgh, he praised the “vigorous and flourishing” Perthshire Choir Union, which had held its annual festival in St. Michael’s.[7] He also wrote a rebuttal to a gentleman who had visited Crieff during the summer and found its music scene wanting:

“Mr. J. Spencer Curwen has thrown a bomb-shell into the Scottish organists’ camp. […] I feel sore, because he has not come to judge our work at the right season. A summer visit creates a false impression, for our choirs are then deprived of many of their best singers, most of our organists have deputies on their stools, and there are of course no rehearsals for the preparation of the Sunday music. The winter is the time to find us at our best.”[8]

Somewhat opposing what he wrote in October 1890, Hadden’s 1910 biography in The Musical Journal suggests that, at least in St. Michael’s, Hadden kept his choir rehearsing throughout the entire year:

“There was an excellent musical service, for the best voices in the town were heard in that choir, and Mr. Hadden had a free hand under the broad-minded minister. Crieff being a resort for holiday makers, special attention was given to the music during the summer, so the weekly choir practice was kept going all the year round. Frequent organ recitals were given, and words of appreciation were often heard from the visitors.”[9]

It is true that the 1910 biography of Hadden is far from objective, written many years after Hadden worked in Crieff, with his full cooperation and by someone who “highly value[d] his friendship” and would not have wanted to risk insulting his subject.[10] Nevertheless, whether Hadden did or did not keep his choir rehearsing all year, it is certainly interesting to think about the musical experience that visitors to Innerpeffray may have had if they stayed in Crieff during their travels.


Handwrittten signature
‘J. Cuthbert Hadden, organist Crieff’ Library of Innerpeffray Visitors’ Book Vol. 1, f.77r

Crucially, while living and working in Crieff between 1881 and 1891, Hadden visited the Library of Innerpeffray on five occasions! The first record of his signature in the Innerpeffray visitors’ book is from Saturday 24th September 1887, when he visited with his wife, ‘Mrs Hadden’. Two additional visitors are recorded as having been to Innerpeffray that day, ‘R. C. Kay’ and ‘Miss Black’, but due to the lack of information provided (no locations or occupations; only initials and/or title rather than full names) I have not been able to ascertain if they were all part of one visiting party or simply all visiting the library on a Saturday.


Three signatures of visitors to Innerpeffray Library
Library of Innerpeffray Visitors’ Book Vol. 1, f.75v

Hadden’s second visit to Innerpeffray, the following year, was as part of a larger group of visitors from Crieff, with two additional visitors normally resident in Cambuslang, Lanarkshire but perhaps staying in Crieff for a holiday. As opposed to the example above, it is evident that at least the first six named visitors were all travelling together – the first three names are clearly written in the same hand and the signatures of Annie and Mary McCormick are bracketed by those of Mrs. Hadden, above, and Mr. Hadden, below. What is less clear from this page is whether the two signatures following Hadden were part of the same travelling party. It appears as though the first seven entries on the page were all entered on Saturday 26th May, with the following signature, that of Albert Lister Peace – Glasgow, entered on Thursday 14th June.


Signatures in the Innerpeffray Library visitors' book - May 26th-June 14th 1888
Visitors to the Library of Innerpeffray, 26th May – 14th June 1888
Innerpeffray Visitors’ Book Vol. 1, f.77r

Were this any other signature, I would have accepted this as fact and continued on without making any comment. However, Dr. Albert Lister Peace (1844-1912) was also an organist – and quite a famous one! Peace reportedly started learning how to play the pianoforte at the age of six and only three years later, at nine years old, became the resident organist of his local church in Huddersfield. Between 1865 and 1897, he worked as the organist for the University of Glasgow, Glasgow Cathedral and St. Andrew’s Hall (now the Mitchell Library). Throughout his career, Peace performed at numerous renowned venues around the United Kingdom, including the Crystal Palace in London (1882), Canterbury Cathedral (1886), Liverpool World’s Fair (1886), and Westminster Abbey (1909).[11]



Additionally, there is evidence to suggest that Hadden and Peace knew each other. In the September 1890 edition of his monthly column, ‘Music in the Scottish Churches’, Hadden indicated that he had learned the following news from Peace and that he had seen him perform more than once:

“A new organ, built by Forster & Andrews, to the specification of Dr. Peace, has been opened in Bothwell Parish Church, near Glasgow. Dr. Peace inaugurated the instrument, playing brilliantly as usual.”[13]

Indeed, I think it is fair to say that Hadden held great respect for both his fellow organist and their chosen instrument – in December 1897, he described another performance:

“I have heard Dr. Peace take the great D major fugue of Bach on a large organ with a full and quick-speaking pedal at what could only be called a terrific rate. The effect was positively electrifying.”[14]

With all of this in mind, it seems fairly unlikely, or at least curious, that Peace would have visited Innerpeffray separately from Hadden, and too big of a coincidence to have his signature two entries below Hadden’s, despite the date indicating that it is two weeks later. At the top of the page, it is clear that there had already been some confusion with the date, with ‘August’ crossed out and ‘May’ written above it. Perhaps there was indeed some misunderstanding with what the date was, and Peace did accompany the Haddens. Perhaps it was just happenstance and Peace visited Innerpeffray separately, only to realise that Hadden had visited two weeks ago. It may also be possible that Hadden visited with the initial travelling group on the 26th May, and when he returned to Innerpeffray with Peace two weeks later, on the 14th June, didn’t want to repeat his signature on the same page. There are countless situations which could have led to these entries in the visitors’ book – and I will probably never find out what actually happened. But the story doesn’t end there, because it happened again a month later!


Signatures of three visitors to the Library of Innerpeffray
Visitors to the Library of Innerpeffray, 11th-12th July 1888
Innerpeffray Visitors’ Book Vol. 1, f.77v

On Wednesday 11th July 1888, Hadden visited the Library of Innerpeffray for a third time, accompanied by his wife, Elizabeth, and his father, James Hadden (1838-1892).[15] And again, another organist signed their name in the visitors’ book – in this instance, apparently a day later. Though John William Davis Pillow (1851-1902), from Landport. Portsmouth, Hants, was not as famous or well-travelled as Albert Lister Peace, it is possible to discover that he was an English organist and conductor who worked primarily in and around the south coast of England. In his youth, Pillow sang in the choir at Chichester Cathedral, where he was taught by resident organist Edward H. Thorne before moving onto his own post at St. Pancras Church, Chichester. In 1889, he served as the director of the Portsmouth Musical Association and in October of that year, he inaugurated the new organ at St. Mary’s Church, Portsea, where he remained as resident organist until 1901.[16] As with the example above, there could be numerous reasons why J. W. D. Pillow visited the Library of Innerpeffray the day after the Hadden family, rather than with them. I could not find any documents suggesting that Pillow and Hadden necessarily knew each other, so perhaps it really is a coincidence. Maybe the ‘12’ next to Pillow’s name was incorrectly placed, meaning to refer to the entry below. In all probability, I will never know the answer – perhaps the contiguous visits were simply serendipitous. But it’s weird that it happened twice.


Signatures of visitors to the Library of Innerpeffray
Library of Innerpeffray Visitors’ Book Vol. 1, f.78v

Later in the summer, on Saturday 4th August 1888, the Haddens again visited the Library of Innerpeffray and brought along additional visitors. Although thus far I have not been able to track down Miss H. N. Bell from Crieff or Mr and Mrs John Garrett from Hamilton, Canada, I cannot rule out the possibility that they, too, were organists!


Signatures of visitors to the Library of Innerpeffray
Library of Innerpeffray Visitors’ Book Vol. 1, f.82r

Finally, on Saturday 20th April 1889, J. Cuthbert Hadden visited the Library of Innerpeffray for the last time, accompanied by two of his fellow gentlemen from Crieff (who do not appear to be organists). In the summer of 1889, the couple moved to 4 Argyle Park Terrace, Edinburgh, where Hadden took up post as organist at St. John’s Parish Church, staying there for twelve years before he is said to have “abandoned music in favour of literature”.[17] In fact, Hadden had been increasingly engaged in “pen work” since 1885, while still in Crieff – he regularly contributed to the Dictionary of National Biography (writing more than 120 entries); wrote a monthly column for The Musical Journal, edited the Scottish Musical Monthly for two years, and published seven books before the turn of the century.[18] By the time Hadden died on the 2nd May 1914, only 54 years old, he had written a further twenty books and was regularly struck by a “great hunger” to perform again.[19]


Although it is not possible for us to hear J. Cuthbert Hadden play the organ, we can read his writing – the Library of Innerpeffray holds a copy of one of Hadden’s books, Thomas Campbell, part of the Famous Scots series and dedicated to his wife.[20]


And in closing, here are two of my favourite anecdotes from his monthly columns. A flying Bible and a sleeping chorister:

“In a Kirriemuir (Forfar) Church the other Sunday a woman is said to have hurled her Bible from the gallery where she was sitting at one of the male members of the choir who had fallen asleep!”[21]

And tales of shock and outrage in Crieff (more research required!):

“One clergyman at Crieff, as he ascended the pulpit-stairs, peremptorily ordered a lady sitting in the choir pew to leave the church. The lady left as requested, and a considerable number of the congregation with her; the precentor sent in his resignation; and now the minister has been sued for £50 damages and a public apology. I trust the law will give the lady both the money and the apology.”[22]

Isla Macfarlane, PhD Student


[1] J. Cuthbert Hadden, ‘R. L. S. and Music’, Glasgow Herald, 21 April 1900, p. 9.

[2] J. Cuthbert Hadden, Modern Musicians: A Book for Players, Singers and Listeners (Edinburgh: T. N. Foulis, 1914).

[3] J. Cuthbert Hadden, ‘Music in the Scottish Churches’, The Non-Conformist Musical Journal, 5.58 (1892), 151–52 (p. 151).

[4] Hadden’s date of birth is much contested and appears incorrectly in a variety of locations and formats, with some websites listing his year of birth as 1816 and (perhaps optimistically?) adding 43 years to his life. Based on his entry in the 1564-1950 Scottish Births and Baptisms register (accessed through Ancestry), James Cuthbert Hadden was born on 5th September 1859. This birthdate is backed up by census entries in the following years, where he was recorded as being one in the April 1861 census and eleven years old in the census of 1871. Additionally, a biography of Hadden which appeared in The Musical Journal in 1910 (plainly written up after an interview and with his full cooperation, given phrases such as “Mr. Hadden tells me” (p.227)) further confirms this birthdate, telling us that “[w]hen he went to London in 1878,” he was “a lad of 18”. Furthermore, several contemporary obituaries published after Hadden’s death in 1914 also note that he died “aged 54”, further confirming his year of birth as 1859.

[5] Broad Nib, ‘Mr. J. Cuthbert Hadden.’, The Musical Journal, 23.274 (1910), 225–27 (p. 226).

[6] Colin Mayall, ‘St Michael’s Church Yard 1972 Survey of Gravestones’, PerthshireCrieffStrathearn Local History, 2015 <https://perthshirecrieffstrathearnlocalhistor.blogspot.com/2015/03/st-michaels-church-yard-1972-survey-of.html> [accessed 15 February 2022].

[7] J. Cuthbert Hadden, ‘Music in the Scottish Churches’, The Non-Conformist Musical Journal, 3.32 (August 1890), 124–25 (p. 125).

[8] J. Cuthbert Hadden, ‘Music in the Scottish Churches’, The Non-Conformist Musical Journal,3.34 (October 1890), 156–57 (p. 156).

[9] Nib, p. 226.

[10] Nib, p. 227.

[11] ‘Peace, Albert Lister, (26 Jan. 1844–14 March 1912), MusDoc Oxon’, in Who’s Who & Who Was Who (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007) <https://doi.org/10.1093/ww/9780199540884.013.U189766> [accessed 7 December 2021].

[12] St. Andrew’s Halls (Glasgow: Wilson Advertising Company, 1907), Mitchell Library, Theatre Collection; Glasgow City Council.

[13] J. Cuthbert Hadden, ‘Music in the Scottish Churches’, The Non-Conformist Musical Journal, 3.33 (September 1890), 132–33 (p.133).

[14] J. Cuthbert Hadden, ‘Passing Notes’, The Nonconformist Musical Journal, 10.120 (December 1897), 184–85 (p. 185).

[15] On the 11th July 1888, James Hadden (senior) listed his place of residence as Aberdeen and was clearly in Crieff visiting his son and daughter-in-law, but just twenty days later, on the 31st July 1888, he was admitted to the Dundee Royal Asylum. Over the next four years he moved between the Old Machar Poorhouse and Aberdeen Royal Asylum, where he died of TB on 14th July 1892. ‘General Register of Lunatics in Asylums: Dundee Royal Asylum, Angus’, (Edinburgh: NRS Mental Health Records, 1888), p. 460 <https://www.scottishindexes.com/hentry.aspx?hid=646021> [accessed 16 February 2022]; NRS Reference MC7/6.

[16] W. B. Henshaw, ‘John William Davis Pillow’, Biographical Dictionary of the Organ; ‘History of the Organ’, The Organ Project.

[17] ‘Hadden, J. Cuthbert, Litterateur.’, in Who’s Who & Who Was Who (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2007).

[18] Nib, p. 227.

[19] Nib, p. 227.

[20] J. Cuthbert Hadden, Thomas Campbell, Famous Scots (London: Oliphant, Anderson and Ferrier, 1899).

[21] J. Cuthbert Hadden, ‘Music in the Scottish Churches’, The Non-Conformist Musical Journal, 4.41 (May 1891), 68–69 (p. 69).

[22] J. Cuthbert Hadden, ‘Music in the Scottish Churches’, The Non-Conformist Musical Journal, 4.37 (January 1891), 4–5 (p. 5).

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Beatrix Potter at Innerpeffray

As it is the 155th anniversary of Beatrix Potter’s birth on the 28th July 2021, we are celebrating by exploring some of the links between Beatrix Potter and the Library of Innerpeffray.

Helen Beatrix Potter Heelis (1866-1943) is remembered today as a respected mycology expert, one of the most popular children’s authors of the Victorian period, and the creator of unforgettable fictional characters including Jemima Puddle-Duck, Mrs. Tiggy-Winkle, Squirrel Nutkin, and many more. Perhaps her most well-known book, The Tale of Peter Rabbit, was first conceived of while Beatrix was staying near Dunkeld in 1893. Writing a letter to the son of one of her former governesses, she came up with a story about “four little rabbits whose names were Flopsy, Mopsy, Cottontail and Peter.” Little did she know then that Peter Rabbit would one day become a household name!

Beatrix Potter Letter to Noel Moore 1893 c. National Trust

It is a well-known fact that Beatrix Potter and her family spent many summer holidays in Perthshire, with her father, Rupert Potter, renting Dalguise House near Dunkeld every summer between 1871 and 1881.[1] Interested in the sport and freedom of Scotland, with its plentiful shooting, fishing and beautiful opportunities for walking and photography, the extended Potter family often travelled away from London between May and October.[2] Before becoming regular guests at Dalguise, we know that the Potters stayed with Edmund Potter near Alness in Easter Ross, and in Tulliemet House in 1870.[3] Excitingly, we now have evidence from the Innerpeffray Library visitors’ books that the Potters also stayed in Scotland in 1868 and 1869.

On the 26th August 1868, a month after Beatrix’s second birthday, the following signatures were entered into the visitors’ book:

Innerpeffray Visitor Books Vol 1, f15r

Rupert Potter and Mrs. R Potter, Kippen, and Mrs. Leech and daughter, London.

Rupert Potter (1832-1914), Beatrix’s father, was a barrister and successful amateur photographer who married Beatrix’s mother, Helen Leech (1839-1932) on the 8th August 1863. The Potters were visiting with Helen’s mother, Beatrix’s maternal grandmother, Jane Ashton (1806-1884) and one of her daughters, Beatrix’s aunt – most likely the eldest daughter of Mrs Leech, Jane (1833-1876), who never married and remained close to home. Although Mrs Leech and her daughter write their location as London, Rupert and Helen write that they were staying at Kippen Estate while visiting Scotland, rather than their usual London address. Although there is a village called Kippen in Stirlingshire, as below where the Potters wrote ‘Garvock’ to refer to Garvock House in Dunning, it seems more likely that they were referring to Kippen House, also in Dunning, which was built in the 1840s.

Postcard showing Kippen House, Dunning

The following year, on the 13th August 1869, we find the Potters returning to Innerpeffray for a second time, this time accompanied by Reverend William Gaskell as well as Mrs and Miss Leech:

Innerpeffray Visitors’ Books Vol 1, f.16v

Mrs and Miss Leech, London; Revd. W. Gaskell, Manchester; and Mr and Mrs Rupert Potter, Garvock and London.

In the summer of 1869, the Potter family was again holidaying with Beatrix’s maternal grandmother and aunt, as well as Unitarian minister and close friend of the family William Gaskell (1805-1884). It was common for the Victorian middle classes to “invite friends to join them on holiday,” and the Potters frequently invited friends and family to join them in Scotland – “especially those who liked to fish and who would endure Rupert’s endless photography sessions.”[4] Gaskell was a close friend and teacher of Rupert Potter’s, having known Rupert’s father Edmund since his university days. Indeed, Jenny Uglow, biographer of William’s wife Elizabeth, states that William often joined the Potters on their annual summer holidays but never invited his wife to accompany him – she emphasizes that he “needed escape, less, one sometimes feels, from the city than from his growing family.”[5] It appears that he preferred spending his leisure time with the Potters rather than his own family.


Photograph of Reverend William Gaskell and Beatrix Potter, taken during one of “Rupert’s endless photography sessions” in the grounds of Dalguise House

On this visit to Innerpeffray, the Potters recorded their location as both Garvock and London, indicating that their long-term residence was in London but at the present time they were staying in Garvock House while in Scotland.

Postcard showing Garvock House Dunning

The following month, the Potters visit Innerpeffray Library for the third time on the 6th September 1869. Their entries in the visitors’ book reveal that although the Leeches were not present, the Potters were joined by Beatrix’s paternal grandfather, Edmund Potter (1802-1883), who writes his place of residence as his Hertfordshire home, Camfield Place:

Innerpeffray Visitor Book Vol 1, f17r

Mr Edmund Potter M.P., Camfield, Hatfield, Herts; Mr. and Miss Potter, also from Camfield; and Mr and Mrs R Potter, Garvock.

It is clear from their three separate visits that Rupert and Helen Potter enjoyed their trips to Innerpeffray – dedicating time from two summer holidays to visit and on each occasion bringing a different visitor to see the library. Innerpeffray was an accessible tourist destination from both Garvock and Kippen by carriage, train or even bicycle – it would take around three hours to walk or one hour to cycle to the library from either location on modern roads. Although Innerpeffray was still easily accessible by train from Dalguise House, they must have considered it too long a journey, as the Potters do not appear again in the visitors’ books.

Map showing the locations of the Potters’ Scottish holiday residences in relation to Innerpeffray Library: Garvock, Kippen, and Dalguise House

Noticeably absent from all of these visitors’ book entries is Beatrix Potter herself! Aged two and three years old at the time of the respective visits, Beatrix may have been left at home with her nurse rather than joining her parents and grandparents at Innerpeffray Library. It is true that Beatrix often spoke of her lonely childhood, where she spent little time with her parents while in London, cared for instead by her nurses and governesses. However, Beatrix also wrote that her “happiest moments” were those spent in Scotland, where “she got extra attention from her father.”[6] Perhaps, away from the stricter rules of London society, “where every activity was carefully regimented and supervised,” the Potters brought their daughter with them while touring Scotland.[7]


Bookplate of Edmund Potter, Camfield Place.

From an early age, Beatrix was an intelligent young girl who was encouraged by friends and family to love stories and books. Reverend William Gaskell, who was a regular holiday companion and visited Innerpeffray with the Potters in August 1869, was chairman of the Portico Library in Manchester from 1849 to 1884 and was recorded as having borrowed more than 700 books between 1850 and 1859.[8] Her grandfather Edmund Potter, who accompanied the Potters to Innerpeffray in September of that same year, had “built a reading room and library which was kept well stocked with books and newspapers.”[9] Although her paternal grandmother, Jessy Crompton Potter, did not accompany her husband Edmund on his trip to Innerpeffray, Beatrix often wrote that she remembered “the stories told by her adoring grandmother” in the library of Camfield Place.[10] With these bibliophile friends and relatives knowing the importance of books on young, impressionable minds, perhaps Beatrix was indeed brought to see the Library of Innerpeffray. Without her name written in the visitors’ books, we can only guess – but I for one would like to think so.

Isla Macfarlane, PhD Student


[1] Barbara Brill and Alan Shelston, ‘Manchester: “A Behindhand Place for Books”: The Gaskells and the Portico Library’, The Gaskell Society Journal, 5 (1991), 27–36 (pp. 27–28) <https://www.jstor.org/stable/45185290>.

[2] Lear, p. 12.

[3] Lear, p. 10.

[4] Lear, p. 28.

[5] Lear, p. 29.

[6] Lear, pp. 22; 28.

[7] Jenny Uglow, Elizabeth Gaskell: A Habit of Stories, (London: Faber and Faber, 2010), p. 103.

[8] Linda Lear, Beatrix Potter: A Life in Nature (New York: St Martin’s Press, 2007), p. 27.

[9] ‘Beatrix Potter Exhibition Garden’, Birnam Arts Visitor Attractions <https://www.birnamarts.com/visitor-tourist-attractions/beatrix-potter-exhibition-garden/>.

[10] Lear, p. 27.